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Bangalore (Bangalura).- A large fortified town in the Mysore Raja’s territories, 70 miles N.E. from Seringapatnam; lat. 12° 57′ N., lon. 77° 38′ E. The surface here is an undulating table land, nearly 3,000 feet above the level of the sea, but there are no high hills within many miles. The fall to the north of Bangalore, after passing Nundydroog, is very rapid, and summit of Paughur, which rises from its base, is nearly on a level with the plateau of Bangalore. In the country further west, after passing the range of hills on which Severndroog, Paughur, and other elevated stations are situated the surface has a sudden descent, and continues low considerably to the west of Seringapatnam, where it begins to ascend again, on approaching the western ghauts. In A.D. 1800 the thermometer here never rose higher than 82°, or fell below 56° Fahrenheit. The cypress and vine grow luxuriantly, the apple and peach produce fruit, and strawberries are used in the sultan’s garden.

The fortress of Bangalore is regular work of great extent, entirely detached from the town, and constructed of the most solid materials. It is surrounded by a ditch of remarkable depth cut in a solid rock, with a spacious glacis, and but for its round bastions and intricate entrances, might pass for a Europen Citadel. Tippoo’s palace, built of mud, with hall enclosed by high pointed Saracenic arches and painted walls and ceilings, has still a lively appearance, and it has lately been patched in an incongrous style of architecture by the Mysore Raja, being occasionally used for public entertainments. The town or pettah Bangalore is composed of tolerably well sized houses, some of two stories, but universally built of the red earth of the country, and roofed with tiles. The principal bazar is wide and regular and ornamented on both sides by rows of cocoa-nut trees the pettah is enclosed with a double line of fortification, the walls also of red mud, space between the inner and outer defences being protected by a thick bound hedge of bamboos and jungle. The cantonment stands about two miles from the pettah, and is remarkably extensive and complete, the squares of barracks being on a great scale and hedged gardens attached to the officer’s bungalows. Besides these accommodations for the military, there is a handsome race-stand, an assembly and reading-room and several well-stocked Europe shops. In 1805 the total population was estimated at 60,000 souls.
The cloths made here being entirely for country use, and never exported to Europe, are made of different sizes to adapt them to the uses of the natives. The Hindoos seldom employ tailors, but wrap round their bodies the web as it comes from the loom.
The silk-weavers make cloth of a very strong fabric of the silk that is imported in a raw state, but which in time may be raised in the country. The introduction of silk-worms has not yet succeeded in the lower Carnatic, but there is reason to believe the country above the ghauts, having a more temperate climate, will be found most suitable. At the weekly market’s cotton is bought up by the poor women of all castes, except the Brahmin, for these never spin, nor do their husbands ever plough the soil. The females of all other castes spin, and at the weekly markets sell the thread to the weavers.
At Bangalore there are how many inhabitants of the Mahomedan religion, and owing to the change of government many of them at first suffered great distress. Above the ghauts, that species of leprosy in which the skin becomes white is very common among the natives. The persons troubled with it enjoy in every other respect good health, and their children alike those of other people. The only year used above ghauts is the chandramanam or lunar year, by which among Brahmins all religious ceremonies are performed. At Bangalore the christian era of A.D. 1800 corresponded with the year 4893 of the Cali Yug, and 1722 of Salivahanam, which last is in universal use in the south of India. This place was first acquired by the Mysore state in 1687, during the reign of Chick Deo Raj, and was stormed by the army under Lord Cornwallis in 1791. Travelling distance from Seringapatam seventy-four miles; from Madras 215; and from Hyderabad 352 miles.–(F.Bachanan, Fullarton, Wilks, Lord Valentia, Col;. Lambton, A.H. Hamilton, &c.)